Scientists said the chemicals can lower children's IQs and are being introduced into people's lives with little review of the associated dangers.
Chemicals that are of most concern include lead and mercury, organophosphate pesticides used in agriculture and gardens, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) found in flame retardants, and phthalates, found in plastic bottles, food containers and beauty products.
Flame retardants, and traffic pollution and from wood smoke can also affect brain development in both the womb and in childhood, according to the new report.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), once used as coolants and lubricants in electrical equipment, are also of concern.
Although these were banned in the US in 1977 and in the UK in 1981, they can linger in the environment for decades.