In 1965, the UN General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD). This convention defines racial discrimination as "any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, color, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life." It states that the conviction that any doctrine of superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable, socially unjust and dangerous, and that there is no justification for racial discrimination, in theory or in practice, anywhere. Israel voluntarily accepted the obligation to work toward achieving these goals with the ratification of the CERD in 1979. Yet, Palestinians have still not seen the benefits of convention.