The development of nuclear artillery was part of a broader push by nuclear weapon countries to develop nuclear weapons that could be used strategically against enemy forces in the region (as in strategic use against cities, military bases and heavy industry). Unlike the). Nuclear artillery was developed and deployed by a small group of states including the United States, the USSR, and France.
The Picatinny Arsenal was tasked with building a nuclear-capable artillery piece in 1949. Robert Schwartz, the engineer who designed the initial designs, came up with a design that borrowed heavily from the German's Krpp-built K5 11-inch railway cannons, but was modified to be carried on the roads by a pair of giant tractors. can be carried.
The gun, labeled the M65, is about 84 feet long (26 m) long and 83-tonne in total weight, being the largest road-mobile artillery the US has ever produced. The 38.5-foot-long barrel (12 m) had a 280 mm bore, which was about 11 in.
The gun was given the nickname Atomic Annie (probably derived from the nickname "Anzio Annie" given to the German K5 gun, which was employed against American landings in Italy.)